"Kala Motia" or "Glaucoma" is a silent theif of sight. It is the third leading cause of blindness in India.
Glaucoma is caused by high pressure in the eyes, which can eventually cause blindness. It affects both eyes but not always to the same extent in each. A Raised pressure inside the eye damages the optic nerve.
Optic nerve transfer visual messages to the brain. When it gets damaged, it impairs visual ability of an individual.
Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma is the most common type of glaucoma affecting people according to the American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO). It is a silent vision stealer. It doesn't give symptoms in the early stage but gradually causes loss of peripheral vision first.
The affected people may not notice the loss of vision and by the time they visit an ophthalmologist, they may have lost a lot of vision - which can never be regained because of permanent damage to the optic nerve - before it gets diagnosed. In later stage, Glaucoma can lead to tunnel vision, where you can just see straight and it can eventually lead to blindness.
In Normal Tension Glaucoma even at lower intra-ocular pressure there may be damage to the optic nerve due to factors such as decreased blood flow into the eye.
In Angle Closure or (acute) Glaucoma there is a sudden in eye pressure and it can cause severe eye pain,low vision, sudden visual disturbances, halos around redness of the eye, nausea and vomiting. This form requires immediate treatment.
Tonometry : Recording of intra Ocular pressure, Tonometer.
Gonioscopy : A lens is applied on the eye and an examined to see if it is closed or open type of glaucoma
Perimetry test is a must for making diagnosis Glaucoma patients. This test is essential not only to the extent of the existing damage, but also to doci and measure the progression.
Other Tests like OCT (Ocular Coherence Tomography), CCT (Pachymetry) are non invasive tests. In this test patient is asked to focus onto a light as the advance machine and its software assess the status of the nerve and the nerve fibre layer.
Glaucoma cannot be cured but it can be controlled so that further damage to the optic nerve can be slowed or halted. This can only be done through disciplined and regular treatment from an ophthalmologist. The treatment of glaucoma is life long.
In this method the ophthalmologist will prescribe eye drops to be instilled in the affected eye.
Includes a procedure where an opening is made to create a new drainage pathway for the fluid to leave the eye easily.
Include procedures such as trabeculoplasty, in which a laser is used to pull open the trabecular mesh work in the drainage area to reduce the pressure inside the eye.
Take your medicines exactly as prescribed.
Use the right drop in the right eye at the right time in the right way.
Try to schedule time for taking medication around your daily routines such as on waking up, during meal times and at bedtime.